The oil and gas industry extensively uses large storage tanks for bulk containment of fluids throughout various stages of the refinery process. These storage tanks store the fluids for a short time before transferring them to other containers, though certain tanks can also store the products for a long time.

Each oil and gas tank needs to meet minimum standards and requirements for design and applications in the industry. Common storage tank engineering standards include the American Petroleum Institute’s API 650  API 620, Indian Standards, and Australian Standards.

The Application and Design features included while Storage Tank Engineering:

  • Vapor Vents

Vapor vents, also called breather valves, prevent pressure build-up when fluids or gases are filled in the tank. They also minimize the risk of implosions by preventing vacuums while emptying the tank.

  • Relief Valves

These valves are engineered to alleviate excessive pressure that may rise beyond the safety limit. Excessive pressure left unchecked can damage the tanks and cause wastage and inefficiency.

  • Sampling and Gauging Hatches

The sampling and gauging hatch is also referred to as the thief hatch. The hatch is generally used for retrieving a sample of the fluid or gas from the containers for analysis. The thief hatch is also used to track and measure the level of contents in the storage tanks.

  • Fire Protection Mechanisms

Storage Tank Engineering prioritizes fire protection systems while building containers for the oil and gas industry. The fire protection system includes nozzle rings that spray foam and other fire-extinguish elements over the tank’s surface if a fire breaks out.

  • Cleaning & Maintenance Decks

The cleaning and maintenance decks are called manholes, usually either on the roofs of the containers or at the bottom level. The manholes facilitate access to the inner sections of the storage tanks for purposes like inspection, cleaning, and maintenance.

  • Water Drainage Systems

Rainwater usually accumulates on the roofs of the tanks, which can cause damage if left unchecked. To prevent this, every storage tank for the oil and gas industry is fitted with a water drainage system. Water accumulates in the center of the roof and is subsequently directed outside via a flexible pipe.

The Common Shapes Of Storage Tanks Include:

  • Vertical Cylindrical Tanks
  • Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks
  • Open Top Tanks
  • Closed Top Tanks
  • Flat Bottom Tanks
  • Cone Bottom Tanks
  • Slope Bottom Tanks
  • Dish Bottom Tanks

Following Are The Storage Tank Designs Widely Used In The Oil And Gas Industry:

  • Floating Roof Tanks
  • Dome Roof Tanks
  • Cone Roof Tanks
  • Double Wall/Cryogenic Tanks

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